“Water, water everywhere and not a single drop to drink,” this old saying perfectly sums up the current situation. There’s water present everywhere around us, but sadly due to pollution, over dwelling, and other practices, it has now become difficult to find fresh and clean water. Most affected by this crisis are big cities where the water sources are diminishing and those present are not fit for drinking.
There have been many researches which have concluded that even municipal water, wells, lakes, rivers, and other water sources contain contamination. While many contaminants found in these water sources are found at lower levels, but it’s proven that, even low-level exposure to these contaminants can cause problems, like liver diseases, dysentery, cancer, and other serious ailments.
This is why it has become very important to purify the water before drinking. Luckily, there are many techniques and purifiers available which can ensure that the water you drink is pure and free from chemicals and contaminants.
Here is an overview of some of the purification techniques that you can use to ensure that the water is pure, safe, and free from contaminants to be used in homes and industries:
This is probably the oldest method used in water purification. Distillation requires heating the water to its boiling point and then collecting the water vapor in a condenser. The condenser is then exposed to lower temperatures, which in turn changes the vapor into liquid water. This shift in the phases of water ensures that most of the contaminants stay behind.
However, distillation is popular and used only in the industries to purify water, since most of the required minerals also get discarded during this process.
RO or Reverse osmosis is one of the most economical techniques of water purification that removes almost 90% to 99% of all contaminants found in water. This process involves the use of RO membranes, which have micro pores that are capable of rejecting almost every type of contaminations, bacterias, and others. RO works on the principle of Osmosis that makes it very cheap.
RO also involves an ionic exclusion process that only allows the solvents to go through the semi-permeable membrane, while dissolved molecules and ions are retained. This makes RO the most economical and efficient method for purifying water.
Ion exchange process
The Ion exchange technique permeates water through ion-exchange resins, which are shaped like beads. This process involves exchanging the ions in the water for other ions that are fixed with the beads. The most common types of ion-exchange processes are softening and deionization. Softening includes reduction of water hardness required during reverse osmosis and deionization includes the exchange of hydrogen ions.
Ion-exchange technique acts as an important component of water purification system when combined with processes, like RO and carbon absorption.
Ultraviolet radiations have been widely used in many industries and water purification devices as a germicidal treatment for contaminated water. Low-pressure mercury lamps are a good source of UV light and these are used to make the germs and bacterias inactive in the water. This process is also combined with RO and carbon absorption for best results.
These are some of the water purification techniques which can be used in house holds and industries to get access to pure, safe, and uncontaminated water.